Monday, 18 July 2011

Ammonium Hexachlorostannate - Pink Salt - 50 g



Chemical formula: (NH4)2SnCl6

Synonyms: pink salt, ammonium hexachlorostannate (IV)

Amount: 50 g

Appearance and odour: off-white crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: Technical

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: so called ‘pink salt’ because it was once used as a dye mordant for vivid pink colours with dyes like Madder and Cocheneal.

For chemists ammonium hexachlorostannate is a tin (IV) [stannic] coordination complex compound with some interesting properties.

Like many ammonium salts it’s very soluble in water. It’s a salt of a strong acid, H2SnCl6 (hexachlorostannic acid, which can be isolated as crystalline H2SnCl6.2H2O), and its solution in water is slightly acidic (from the ammonium ions). In hot, pure water hydrolysis of the anion tends to occur, with stannic hydroxide (Sn(OH)4) causing cloudiness of the solution. It’s therefore better dissolved in slightly acidified water (0.1 M HCl e.g.)

Ammonium hexachlorostannate is very soluble in 1 M HCl, both hot and cold. At BP the solubility in 1 M HCl is about 38 g/100 g. But in concentrated HCl (>20 %), both hot and cold, it’s solubility is very low, offering an easy route to recrystallisation.

The salt demonstrates the amphoterism of stannic compounds: add ammonia (or weak NaOH) to its solution and Sn(OH)4 precipitates. This precipitate redissolves both in strong acid (forming stannic salts) and in strong alkali (forming stannates - e.g. Na2Sn(OH)6).

Ammonium hexachlorostannate solutions are mild oxidisers: aluminium, zinc or magnesium metal will all be oxidised quickly with the tin being reduced to stannous (Sn (II)), which can be titrated with KMnO4 (e.g. for assaying purposes).

The pure compound, when heated strong in a hot Bunsen flame, sublimes leaving no ash: presumably the compound splits into NH4Cl and SnCl4 which are both volatile.

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CAS: 16960-53-5

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Saturday, 16 July 2011

Phenolphtalein Biodiesel Titration Indicator - 50 ml



Composition: solution of phenolphthalein in alcohol/water mixture.

Synonyms: phenolphtalein indicator solution for acid-base titrations.

Amount: 50 ml

Appearance and odour: clear liquid with alcoholic odour.

Packaging: professional white HDPE 50 ml dropper bottle with screw-on conical protective cap. Labelled.

Description and uses: high grade phenolphtalein based acid-base indicator solution. Add about three drops of indicator solution to any acid base titration and the titrated liquid will change colour from colourless to fuchsia (pink) from pH 8.2 to pH 10.

This so-called ‘pH interval' makes phenolphthalein indicator solution the preferred indicator for titrating waste vegetable oil with potassium hydroxide (KOH or ‘catalyst’) for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil) solution.

Titrate 1 ml of waste vegetable oil dissolved in pure alcohol or 90 % rubbing alcohol (isopropanol - IPA) drop-wise with a solution that contains 1.00 g per litre of biodiesel catalyst (KOH) until the colour change from clear to pink occurs. Note the number of ml of KOH solution needed to get the colour change and add 7 to this number. That number is the amount of gram of KOH your vegetable oil will need to be converted to biodiesel fuel, using methanol, per litre of oil.

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CAS: 77-09-8 (pure phenolphthalein)
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Biodiesel Titration KOH Solution - 500 ml



Composition: Solution of biodiesel grade KOH in deionised water, 1.000 g KOH per litre.

Synonyms: biodiesel KOH titrant solution.

Amount: 500 ml

Appearance and odour: clear liquid without appreciable odour.

Packaging: professional narrow (picture shows a wide necked bottle) necked white HDPE 500 ml bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: titrant solution of 1.000 g biodiesel grade solution per litre of deionised water.

Never ever worry again about accurately weighing 1.00 g of KOH and dissolving it in an accurate amount of 1000 ml of water! We prepare much larger batches to ensure high gravimetric and volumetric accuracy, with consequently more precise and better reproducible biodiesel titration results. The designed-for-liquids and chemically resistant UN approved HDPE bottle with conical seal means your KOH solution can be kept indefinitely.

Titrate 1 ml of waste vegetable oil dissolved in pure alcohol or 90 % rubbing alcohol (isopropanol - IPA) drop-wise with our biodiesel titrant solution (KOH 1.000 g/litre) until the colour change from clear to pink occurs. Note the number of ml of KOH solution needed to get the colour change and add 7 to this number. That number is the amount of gram of KOH your vegetable oil will need to be converted to biodiesel fuel, using methanol, per litre of oil.

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CAS: 1310-58-3 (pure KOH)


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Sunday, 10 July 2011

Aluminium Atomised spherical - 400 Mesh - 99.7 % - 200 g

Chemical formula: Al

Synonyms: aluminium powder, aluminum powder.

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: very fine grey powder, without appreciable odour.

Grade: chemically pure (99.7 %)

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: this is a top notch grade, both in purity and fineness (400 mesh, 32 micron) suitable both pyrotechnical uses as well as various inorganic and organic synthesis. Ideally suited for super hot, lightening fast Thermite type reactions (Goldschmidt reactions).

Due to its high purity this product is very suited for direct halogenation either with chlorine of hydrogen chloride, to obtain anhydrous aluminium chloride, an important catalyst in Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions.

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Saturday, 9 July 2011

Tin Chloride - Tin (II) Chloride - Reagent Grade - 50 g



Chemical formula: SnCl2.2H2O

Synonyms: tin chloride dihydrate, tin dichloride, stannous chloride, chloride of tin.

Amount: 50 g

Appearance and odour: white crystals, without appreciable odour.

Grade: Reagent grade.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: the primary and highly soluble water soluble tin (II) salt.

Ammonia solution added to a tin (II) chloride solution causes tin (II) hydroxide to precipitate. Adding strong alkali (NaOH or KOH) to the precipitate causes it to dissolve to stannite solution. Dissolving thin (II) hydroxide in acids causes the respective tin salts to be formed.

It’s a mild reducing agent that is easily oxidised to tin (IV) (stannic compounds) by oxygen, nitric acid and many other oxidising agents. It reduces copper (II) compounds to copper (I). By reduction of silver (I) solutions with SnCl2, silver mirrors can be created.

Electrolysis of aqueous stannous chloride solutions causes metallic tin to form at the cathode, often in the form of a so-called ‘tin-tree’.

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CAS: 10025-69-1


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Ammonium Chloride - Salmiac - 200 g



Chemical formula: NH4Cl

Synonyms: sal ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, sal armagnac, salt armoniack

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: white crystals, with slightly aromatic odour.

Grade: Reagent grade.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a highly soluble water soluble ammonium salt that yields slightly acidic aqueous solutions.

At 338 Celsius it sublimes (evaporates without prior melting).

Ammonium chloride has a wide range of application fields such as chemistry, medicine, biology, metalwork, cryogenics, dry batteries and others.

Salmiac solutions combined with ammonia solutions form acid-base buffers (pH around 9).

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CAS: 12125-02-9

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Friday, 8 July 2011

Sodium Sulphite - Na2SO3 - 97 % - 200 g



Chemical formula: Na2SO3

Synonyms: anhydrous sodium sulphite

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: white crystals, with slight sulphurous odour.

Grade: minimum 97 %.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: the water soluble sodium salt of sulphurous acid (H2SO3).

A mild reducer it finds use as such in many industrial and laboratory applications.

Combined with a strong acid it releases gaseous sulphur dioxide (SO2).

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CAS: 7757-83-7

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Strontium Carbonate - SrCO3 - 98 % - 100 g



Chemical formula: SrCO3

Synonyms: carbonate of strontium.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white crystalline powder, without appreciable odour

Grade: min. 98 %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: an acid soluble strontium compound. Used in a plethora of inorganic and organic synthesis. Confers a typical carmine colour to a hot flame (bunsen or alcohol), due to strontium’s spectral emission lines. Like many carbonates it is highly insoluble in water.

An all round precursor to most strontium salts: just dissolve in the acid of choice to obtain the salt (carbon dioxide is the by-product).

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CAS: 1633-05-2

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Potassium Permanganate - KMnO4 - 99+ % - 100 g



Chemical formula: KMnO4

Synonyms: permanganate of potassium

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: deep purple-brown crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: > 99 % - Lab grade

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: one of the most commonly used strong oxidisers, for non-aqueous and aqueous use. As an oxidiser it's fairly comparable to potassium dichromate.

In potassium permanganate, manganese finds itself in oxidation state +VII, its highest possible. A powerful oxidising agent, during the oxidation process Mn +VII gets reduced to Mn +II (Mn 2+ salts) or Mn +IV (MnO2, insoluble manganese dioxide), depending on conditions. Like potassium dichromate it can oxidise primary alcohols (to acids) and secondary alcohols (to aldehydes) with considerable generation of heat.

In the dry state potassium permanganate oxidises the alcohol functions of glycerine with the mixture heating up so much that it can be used to ignite a Thermite reaction: drop pipette some glycerine on to a small pile of potassium permanganate and it more or less catches fire.

Permanganate is also a source of other manganese salts, by-products of the oxidation process.

In analytical chemistry potassium permanganate is used abundantly for redox titrations, as an oxidising titrant solution (usually standardised against hot oxalic acid). This grade is pure enough for analytical purposes.

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CAS: 7722-64-7

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Potassium Chlorate - KClO3 - 99.9 % - 100 g



Chemical formula: KClO3

Synonyms: chlorate of potassium

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99.88 %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: one of the most commonly used strong oxidisers, mainly for non-aqueous use. As such it finds extensive use in pyrotechnical applications, including solid rocket motors. It's a little less powerful than potassium perchlorate but safer to use.

With magnesium it forms a powerful flash powder. Ignite from a safe distance...

With aluminium powder it burns very hotly (probably over 3,000 centigrade) once ignited, usually with a magnesium ribbon or a blow torch, but in a very contained manner, producing (vapourised) KCl and molten alumina (Al2O3). For extra heat a little sulphur can be added but reportedly mixtures of KClO3, aluminium powder and sulphur (powder) are pressure sensitive and can flash. Due to high burn temperature, straight KClO3-Al powder mixes (stable enough to keep without any problems or special precautions) are a common method of igniting Thermite (Goldschmidt) reactions.

In some Thermite (Goldschmidt) reactions where extremely high end-temperatures are required (Niobium, Vanadium, Chromium, Titanium, special alloys) a certain amount of a stoichiometric mix of KClO3 and Al powder is added to the target oxide-Al powder mixture to boost heat output significantly and increase the yield of the high melting target metal.

KClO3 is also a handy laboratory source of small amounts of pure oxygen (O2): gently heated in a glass retort, the potassium chlorate releases its chemically bound oxygen, leaving behind potassium chloride (KCl).


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CAS: 3811-04-9


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Lead Nitrate - Pb(NO3)2 - chemically pure - 50 g



Chemical formula: Pb(NO3)2

Synonyms: nitrate of lead, saltpetre of lead

Amount: 50 g

Appearance and odour: white crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: pure

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: lead nitrate is probably the most used general purpose, highly water soluble lead compound and a precursor to most other lead salts and compounds.

This product is sufficiently pure to be used as a standard material.

Precipitate as lead carbonate using sodium carbonate and redissolve in relevant acid to obtain other salts of lead.

A solution of lead nitrate can be oxidised to lead (IV) oxide (PbO2) with NaOH and sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach). Dissolving the freshly prepared PbO2 in ice cold concentrated HCl and decanting this solution into an ice cold saturated solution of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) causes yellow ammonium hexachloroplumbate ((NH4)2PbCl6) to crystallise out. This is a member of a group of compounds derived from Group IV (a or b) metals in oxidation state +IV with general formula M2M'X6, where M is an alkali cation (or ammonium), M' is a metal from Group IV in oxidation state +IV and X is a halogen. The hexachloroplumbate coordination complex releases oily PbCl4 (lead tetrachloride) when treated with cold concentrated sulphuric acid.

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CAS: 10099-74-8


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Nickel Sulphate - 99 % - 50 g



Chemical formula: NiSO4.7H2O

Synonyms: nickel sulphate heptahydrate, spirit of nickel.

Amount: 50 g

Appearance and odour: green crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99 %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: nickel sulphate heptahydrate is probably the most used general purpose, water soluble nickel compound and a precursor to most other nickel salts.

Precipitate as hydroxide using alkali and redissolve in relevant acid to obtain other salts of nickel.

Washing and glowing the hydroxide Ni(OH)2.nH2O and one obtains nickel (II) oxide (NiO) which can be reduced by various reducing agents, including aluminium powder in a Goldschmidt reaction. This reaction needs considerable amounts of calcium fluoride (Fluorite) to dampen its vigour and obtain nickel lump metal.

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CAS: 10101-98-1


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Copper Oxide - CuO - 100 g



Chemical formula: CuO

Synonyms: cupric oxide

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: heavy, dark brown-black powder without appreciable odour.

Grade: technical

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: copper (II) oxide is used in pottery glazing as a greenish pigment. Chemically it is quite inert and requires hot concentrated sulphuric acid or fusing with sodium bisulphate to enter solution. It's precursor to copper metal.

It can be used to demonstrate the (industrial) use of carbon (cokes) as a reducing agent for metal oxides: a mixture of CuO and finely ground carbon is heated in a test tube with a hot Bunsen flame. Carbon reduces the oxide to metal and CO/CO2 is formed. Copper sponge is left behind.

Another reducing agent for copper (II) oxide is aluminium powder in a Thermite (Goldschmidt) reaction. Note that this reaction needs considerable calcium fluoride to obtain actual lump copper metal.

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CAS: 1317-39-1

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Phenol - Reagent Grade - 50 g



Chemical formula: C6H5OH

Synonyms: Carbolic Acid, Benzenol, Phenylic Acid, Hydroxybenzene, Phenic acid

Amount: 50 g

Appearance and odour: medium size clear crystals, with a distinct sweet odour.

Grade: Reagent grade.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: one of the most important precursors used in organic synthesis.

Slightly soluble in water, yields slightly acidic solutions.

An aromatic compound reactive towards electrophilic substitutions.

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CAS: 108-95-2



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Ultra fine Zinc Powder - 900 mesh - 99 % - 100 g



Chemical formula: Zn

Synonyms: zinc dust

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: very fine dark powder, without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99 %.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: Ultra fine zinc powder (2 - 3 micron!) of high chemical purity.

To a first user of this product the powder may appear quite lumpy, thereby hiding its ultrafine nature. Fine powders tend of course to somewhat clump together and the powder of a fairly soft, reactive and quite pure metal like zinc is no exception. Very gently crushing the product on a smooth but hard surface and pestle, dispersion into a dry mix or dispersion into a liquid by means of vigorous stirring will cause any aggregates to completely break up.

In inorganic and organic chemistry zinc powder finds use as a powerful reducer, during which it oxidises to Zn (+II) which can be complexed (for separation purposes) with ammonia.

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Bismuth Nitrate - 100 g - 99.5 % - Lab grade



Chemical formula: Bi(NO3)3.5H2O

Synonyms: bismuth nitrate pentahydrate, nitrate of bismuth.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white crystals without appreciable odour

Grade: chemically pure (99.5 %) - lab grade

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a water soluble bismuth compound, prone to hydrolysis. A precursor for other bismuth compounds. This is a high grade of bismuth nitrate.

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CAS: 10035-06-0


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Barium Carbonate - 100 g - BaCO3



Chemical formula: BaCO3

Synonyms: carbonate of barium.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white powder, without appreciable odour.

Grade: technical.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a water insoluble barium compound. Precursor to just about any barium compound by dissolving in any acid: the barium salt of the acid's conjugated base is then formed with the evolution of carbon dioxide.

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CAS: 513-77-9


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Barium nitrate - Ba(NO3)2 - 99.4 % - 100 g

Chemical formula: Ba(NO3)2

Synonyms: nitrate of barium, barium saltpetre.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white crystalline powder, without appreciable odour.

Grade: chemically pure (99.4 %)

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a water soluble barium compound.

In a hot flame (bunsen or alcohol) it colours the flame a bright green.

As a nitrate, it's a powerful oxidiser on a par with potassium nitrate (saltpetre) and used therefore in pyrotechnics for its bright green flame.

In analytical chemistry it is used for the quantitative gravimetric determination of sulphur-bearing compounds, after oxidation to sulphate and precipitation as BaSO4.

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CAS: 10022-31-8

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Potassium Dichromate - K2Cr2O7- 99 % - 100 g



Chemical formula: K2Cr2O7

Synonyms: potassium dichromate (VI), chrome mordant.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: amber-red crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99 %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: probably the most used general purpose, very strong oxidiser in inorganic chemistry. A chromium compound of oxidation state +VI.

Used in redox titrations as an oxidising titrant.

Once used in breathalysers because it oxidises alcohol(s) thereby turning green in the presence of alcohol vapour, it's still much used in the quantitative determination of alcohol in aqueous solutions by adding an excess dichromate and back titrating with Mohr's Salt (also sold by OCS). Determine the alcohol content in your favourite tipple!

Used to distinguish primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by the reaction products of their oxidation with dichromate.

Oxidation reaction of alcohols with dichromate is also classic textbook stuff because these reactions are highly exothermic. In the presence of dilute sulphuric acid chromium alum (KCr(SO4)2.12H2O), a purple alum, is formed.

A general source of water soluble chromium ions in various states of oxidation.

In chromium Thermite (Goldschmidt - reduction with aluminium powder) reactions, potassium dichromate can be used as a heat booster, thereby increasing metal yield.

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CAS: 7778-50-9



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Antimony Trisulphide - 400 mesh - Sb2S3 - 100 g

Chemical formula: Sb2S3

Synonyms: antimony (III) sulphide, antimony (III) sulfide.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: very fine black powder without appreciable odour.

Grade: 97 - 99 %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: this is a high end grade antimony (III) compound, both in purity and fineness (over 400 mesh), suitable both pyrotechnical uses as well as various inorganic and organic synthesis. Despite being a metalloid sulphide it doesn't appreciably smell of hydrogen sulphide.

Small amounts of antimony can be synthesised from it by reduction with aluminium powder in a Goldschmid equivalent reaction.

Reacted with strong, hot mineral acids the antimony oxide(s) can be obtained.

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CAS: 215-713-4

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Sodium Thiosulphate - Na2S2O3 - 99 % - 100 g



Chemical formula: Na2S2O3

Synonyms: sodium thiosulfate

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white crystalline powder, with slight sulphurous odour.

Grade: chemically pure (99 %)

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a highly water soluble sodium compound. As a mild reducing agent it finds uses as such.

In analytical chemistry it is used for the quantitative determination of oxidisers like iodine, ferric compounds (Fe (III)) and many others, by means of titration or back titration.

Suitable for photographic purposes (development - photographic fixer).

Sodium thiosulphate is used also in iodine chemical clock experiments.

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CAS: 7772-98-7


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Potassium Chloride - KCl - 99 % - 100 g



Chemical formula: KCl

Synonyms: chloride of potassium, muriatic salt of potassium.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white crystalline powder, without appreciable odour

Grade: chemically pure (99 %)

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a moderately water soluble potassium compound. Used in a plethora of inorganic and organic synthesis. Confers a typical lilac colour to a hot flame (bunsen or alcohol), due to potassium’s spectral emission lines.

This material is chemically pure enough to serve as a standard material.

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CAS: 7447-40-7


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Ammonium Sulphate - (NH4)2SO4 - Lab grade - 200 g



Chemical formula: (NH4)2SO4

Synonyms: sulphate of ammonium.

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: white crystalline powder, without appreciable odour

Grade: chemically pure - Lab grade

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: high grade general purpose ammonium salt. Highly soluble in water, even more so in hot water. Aqueous solutions are slightly acidic due to ammonium ions.

Large variety of uses, such as the laboratory scale generation of ammonia gas, by dry distillation with a strong alkali.

Added to concentrated sulphuric acid it forms ammonium bisulphate (NH4HSO4) which can be used instead of sodium or potassium bisulphate for the fusion of calcined oxides, ores, oxidic minerals and such like.

Dispatch: depending on time of receipt of your order, your item will be dispatched either same day or next day at the latest.

Feedback & Complaints: not happy about something? Let us know first before you leave any feedback and we’ll bend over backwards to overcome the problem. Positive feedback always reciprocated.

CAS: 7783-20-2


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Wednesday, 6 July 2011

Copper Sulphate pentahydrate 200 g



Chemical formula: CuSO4.5H2O

Synonyms: cupric sulphate, spirit of copper.

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: blue crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99 or more %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: copper sulphate pentahydrate is probably the most used general purpose, water soluble copper compound and a precursor to most other copper salts.

Precipitate as hydroxide using alkali and redissolve in relevant acid to obtain other salts of copper.

A hot flame (bunsen or alcohol) is coloured a greenish colour by it, due to spectral emission lines of copper.

With aqueous ammonia it forms a beautiful deep blue complex.

With an iodide it forms copper (I) iodide (CuI) and iodine (I2), a method used to standardise sodium thiosulphate solutions (and other mild reducing agents). Another copper (I) (oxidation state +I) salt can be formed by boiling a copper sulphate solution in saturated NaCl with copper wire: white insoluble copper (I) chloride (CuCl) then precipitates, which can be kept under water but oxidises to CuOHCl on contact with air. CuCl is soluble in ammonia as a clear ammonium complex.

Reducing Cu (II) sulphate with fructose causes yellow-red copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) to form (see also Fehlings Reagent).

Interesting redox displacement reactions that demonstrate the redox potential series with zinc and aluminium (among others): watch a strip of either metal get coated in copper metal while the metal slowly enters in solution.

CAS: 7758-99-7


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Ammonium Ferrous Sulphate 100 g (Mohr’s Salt)



Chemical formula: (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2.6H2O

Synonyms: ammonium ferrous sulphate hexahydrate, ammonium iron (II) sulphate, ferrous ammonium sulphate.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: a mixture of small and medium light green crystals, slightly moist, without appreciable odour.

Grade: recrystallised.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper evidence ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a double salt of ammonium sulphate and ferrous sulphate it is a primary source of a soluble iron (II) (ferrous) salt. Well soluble in cold water and highly soluble in hot water it is an ideal substance for crystal growing.

Named after Karl Friedrich Mohr, the German chemist who invented it, Mohr’s Salt is much more resistant to oxidation than plain ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) due to the presence of acidifying ammonium ions.

As a highly stable iron (II) compound with a high gravitational lever and a medium reducer it is often used as a titrant solution (0.1; 0.05 or 0.01 N) in redox titrations. For such analytical purposes it is recommendable (but not strictly speaking necessary) to dry the material overnight on filter paper in a dry, cool place. For most purposes ferrous ammonium sulphate titrant solutions require standardising.

To prevent hydrolysis (cloudiness) solutions of Mohr’s Salt are best prepared in 0.1 M strong acid (sulphuric or hydrochloric).

CAS: 10045-89-3


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Alum 200 g (potassium aluminium sulphate)



Chemical formula: KAl(SO4)2.12H2O

Synonyms: potassium aluminium sulphate dodecahydrate, potassium alum, aluminium sulphate (misnomer).

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: mixture of small and larger white crystals, without appreciable odour

Grade: recrystallised.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper evidence ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a double salt of aluminium sulphate and potassium sulphate used as a dye mordant and water treatment agent (flocculant) it is a primary source of soluble aluminium salt. Well soluble in cold water and highly soluble in hot water it is an ideal substance for crystal growing. It forms regular octahedral crystals with flattened corners and can be grown into very larger crystals with some patience. Mixed crystals with chromium alum or ferric alum can also be grown.

Add ammonia solution to an alum solution and hydrated aluminium hydroxide precipitates: the basis of most other aluminium salts. Add strong alkali (NaOH or KOH) to the precipitate and it dissolves to aluminate, a phenomenon known as amphoterism.

CAS: 10043-67-1

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Ferric Ammonium Alum 100 g

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Chemical formula: NH4Fe(SO4)2.12H2O

Synonyms: ammonium ferric sulphate dodecahydrate, ferric alum, ferric ammonium alum, ferric ammonium sulphate, iron alum, FAS, FAA.

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: mixture of small and larger crystals, off white, pale violet to light brown in colour, without appreciable odour

Grade: recrystallised.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper evidence ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a double salt of ferric (III) sulphate and ammonium sulphate used as a water treatment agent (flocculant) it is a primary source of soluble iron (III) salt. Well soluble in cold water and highly soluble in hot water it is an ideal substance for crystal growing. It forms large regular octahedral crystals with flattened corners and can be grown into very large crystals with some patience. Mixed crystals with chromium alum or aluminium alum can also be grown.

As a highly stable iron (III) compound with a high gravitational lever and a medium oxidiser it is often used as a titrant solution (0.1; 0.05 or 0.01 N) in redox titrations. For such analytical purposes it is recommendable (but not strictly speaking necessary) to dry the material overnight on filter paper in a dry, cool place. For most purposes ferric ammonium alum titrant solutions require standardising.

Ferric ammonium sulphate solutions are slightly thermochromic: hot solutions are considerably darker than cold ones, due to hydrolysis of the Fe (III) ion. It is recommended to suppress hydrolysis in titrant solutions by dissolving the compound in 0.1 M strong acid (sulphuric or hydrochloric).


For some purposes you may want to extra purify the product. Ferric ammonium alum is very easy to recrystallise. Take 2 parts (weight) of product and add 1 part (weight or volume) of distilled, deionised or very soft water and gently heat till the crystals have dissolved completely. There is no need to boil. Transfer the liquid to a sturdy but plastic and slightly flexible container (PP is ideal for this). Dip a glass rod or spatula in the liquid and allow it to cool and dry, then scrape some of the crystals thus formed into the liquid: these will act as seed crystals. Allow to cool to room temperature, then put on ice bath or in the fridge overnight. Decant off the supernatant liquid and set it aside. By squeezing the container gently the crystals will separate easily from the container walls (the alum tends to stick somewhat to glass and can be hard to safely remove from a glass vessel). Allow them to dry in a cool dark place on a porous plate, filter paper or good quality kitchen towel.

CAS: 10138-04-02








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