Tuesday, 30 August 2011

Cryolite - Sodium Hexafluoroaluminate - Na3AlF6 - 100 g



Chemical formula: Na3AlF6

Synonyms: Kryolite, trisodium hexafluoroaluminate, sodium aluminium fluoride

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: fine white powder without appreciable odour.

Grade: Technical

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: cryolite’s main usage industrially is in the production of aluminium by eletrolysis of a molten eutectic mixture of alumina and cryolite. Once mined, today it is mainly produced industrially.

Because of it chemical inertness and relatively low melting point (1,000 C) it is used also as a flux in pottery glazes.

Because of its eutectic forming properties with alumina, cryolite is also an excellent flux for aluminothermic reduction reactions (better known as ‘Thermite’ or ‘Goldschmidt’ reactions), greatly helping to fluidise the slag/metal mixture and thus promoting good separation of metal and slag. It performs better than the slightly less expensive fluorite (CaF2), the more traditional fluxing agent.

With hot, strong alkalis like NaOH, cryolite decomposes slowly to NaF and alumina.

Cryolite also has the curious property of having almost the exact same refractive index as water. A clear crystal of the material thus seemingly disappears when immersed in water, the subject of a neat party trick.

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CAS: 13775-53-6

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Friday, 26 August 2011

Tin Metal Powder - Sn - 63 micron - 100 g



Chemical formula: Sn

Synonyms: tin superfine powder

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: heavy dark grey powder without any appreciable odour

Grade: 99.91 %, 63 micron, 230 Mesh

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: superfine elemental tin powder.

Ideal for various organic and inorganic tin compound preparations.

With anhydrous HCl gas, anhydrous SnCl2 (stannous chloride) is formed. With hydrochloric acid, hydrated stannous chloride (SnCl2.2H2O) results.

With dry chlorine gas (Cl2) it unites to form anhydrous stannic chloride (SnCl4).

Tin metal reacts very vigorously with mixtures of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid (so called Aqua Regis) to form a solution of H2SnCl6. Caution: due to the fineness of this grade only small amounts of this powder should be added one at a time to well stirred Aqua Regis because the reaction can be violent and lead to boil-overs.

Tin metal is a mild reduction agent.

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CAS: none

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Potassium Thiocyanate - KSCN - Chemically pure - 100 g



Chemical formula: KSCN

Synonyms: potassium rhodanide, potassium sulphocyanide, potassium thiocyanide

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white powder without any appreciable odour

Grade: Chemically pure

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: an important pseudohalide compound, highly soluble in water and soluble also in acetone.

With Fe3+(aq) (ferric ion) it forms a blood red complex; FeSCN2+, a property used in analytical chemistry as a visual test for ferric ions. A KSCN solution is used in volumetric analysis as an indicator solution for redox titrations, using acidified ferric ammonium alum as titrant solution.

The red colour of the FeSCN2+ complex causes KSCN to be used for creating blood effects for film or theatre.

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CAS: 333-20-0

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Thursday, 25 August 2011

Potassium Bromide - KBr - Chemically pure - 100 g



Chemical formula: KBr

Synonyms: bromide of potassium

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white powder without any appreciable odour

Grade: Chemically pure

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: bromine’s main water soluble compound.

With chlorine gas or by electrolysis the bromide is converted to elemental bromine (Br2), a toxic dark red- brown liquid with an exceedingly pungent smell.

Potassium bromide is a precursor to potassium bromate (KBrO3), a very powerful oxidising agent.

In organic synthesis KBr is used to produce brominated species by acid-catalysed bromination of alcohols.

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CAS: 7758-02-3



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Potassium Iodide - KI - Chemically pure - 100 g



Chemical formula: KI

Synonyms: iodide of potassium

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: white powder without any appreciable odour

Grade: Chemically pure

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: iodine’s main water soluble compound.

This grade shows no signs whatsoever of oxidation: pure white KI contains no free iodine (I2, which causes KI to take on a yellow hue).

With chlorine gas or by electrolysis the iodide is converted to violet elemental iodine (I2).

Elemental iodine is highly soluble in KI solutions forming potassium triiodide (KI3).

With copper (cupric) salts, insoluble cuprous iodide (CuI) and elemental iodine is formed:

Cu2+(aq) + 2 I-(aq) === > CuI(s) + ½ I2(aq)

This reaction is used in analytical chemistry to standardise oxidising solutions like sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3), by back titrating the iodine released by reacting a precisely known quantity of cupric salt with an excess of KI.

Iodine is an essential part of our diet. Iodine supplements (in the form of potassium iodide) are used to fight certain diseases. Iodine supplements are also administered in areas afflicted by nuclear disasters to substitute any intake of radioactive iodine 135.

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CAS: 7681-11-0

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Friday, 19 August 2011

Iron (II) Sulphate Heptahydrate - FeSO4.7H2O - 200 g

Chemical formula: FeSO4.7H2O

Synonyms: Ferrous sulfate; green vitriol; iron vitriol; copperas

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: small green crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99 %

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a good source of Fe2+ (ferrous - oxidation state II) ions. This grade is highly and completely water soluble. It’s the basis of many Fe (II) salts. Oxidises easily to Fe (III), even by air. Precipitate with alkali, redissolve in acid to obtain other iron salts.

Note that this is not a common garden grade (moss killer), most of which contain anti-caking agents and show signs of partial oxidation and poor water solubility.

A mild reducing agent, common oxidisers like oxygen, nitric acid, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and many others oxidise Fe (II) to Fe (III) and this is the basis for the production of many ferric (III) compounds.

At close to 500 Celsius in air it decomposes undergoing oxidation with sulphur dioxide and trioxide being liberated.

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CAS: 7720-78-7

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Thursday, 18 August 2011

Sodium Bisulphate - Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate - NaHSO4 - 200 g

Chemical formula: NaHSO4 (anhydrous)

Synonyms: sodium hydrogen sulphate, acid sodium sulphate

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: small white crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: technical

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: sometimes referred to as 'the poor man's concentrated sulphuric acid’, sodium bisulphate can be used to fuse with materials (minerals, ores, oxides...) to digest them (for analysis or extraction), instead of the more hazardous and generally more expensive concentrated sulphuric acid. The higher melting point (315 Celsius) allows reaching higher temperatures of fusion than mere digestion with sulphuric acid alone. Also when added to concentrated sulphuric acid it increases the latter’s boiling point, thus enabling to reach higher temperatures during difficult digestions of inorganic materials.

Prolonged heating at boiling point causes dehydration with formation of sodium pyrosulphate (Na2S2O7), a precursor to sulphur trioxide.

In aqueous solution it behaves like a medium-strong acid and will easily dissolve the more reactive of metals. A solution of 120 g/L (1 M) has a pH of less than 1. The bisulphate anion has a pKa of 1.99.

Industrially it finds use as ‘pH down’ to decrease the pH of water in a variety of applications.

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CAS: 7681-38-1

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Wednesday, 17 August 2011

Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate - ZnSO4.7H2O - 200 g



Chemical formula: ZnSO4.7H2O

Synonyms: sulphate of zinc, white vitriol

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: small, white crystals without appreciable odour.

Grade: 100 % water soluble

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: zinc sulphate heptahydrate is probably the most used general purpose, water soluble zinc compound and a precursor to most other zinc salts.

Precipitate as hydroxide using alkali and redissolve in relevant acid to obtain other salts of zinc. In an excess alkali the hydroxide redissolves as zincate. The hydroxide also dissolves in ammonia solution, forming a colourless zinc (II) tetra ammonium complex. This distinguishes it from aluminium which forms aluminates but not ammonia complexes.

The Daniell Cell is a textbook example of electrochemistry. A zinc anode dipped in a zinc sulphate solution and connected to a copper cathode dipped into a copper sulphate solution (the electrolytes are connected by a salt bridge to complete the circuit) provides a voltage across the electrodes of approximately 1.1 V (Volt).

Industrial uses include electroplating of zinc and as a dye mordant.

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CAS: 7733-02-0

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Monday, 15 August 2011

Iron (III) Oxide - Ferric Oxide - Fe2O3 - 200 g



Chemical formula: Fe2O3

Synonyms: ferric oxide, oxide of iron, red iron oxide, hematite

Amount: 200 g

Appearance and odour: red-brown fine powder without appreciable odour.

Grade: 99 %, high grade

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper ring. Labeled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: iron’s main oxide. This is NOT a ‘pottery’ grade and as such has only negligible acid-insoluble residue.

A precursor to most other ferric (iron (III)) compounds by dissolving it in an excess of hot, conc. (> 95 %) sulphuric acid or by fusing it with an excess of sodium bisulphate.

Also find use in pyrotechnical applications and it’s one of the main components of Thermite. This mixture of ferric oxide and aluminium powder (often fluxes like fluorite are added to increase metal recovery) once ignited ‘burns’ (Goldschmidt Reaction) to sufficiently high temperatures (above 2,500 Celsius) to produce a mixture of molten alumina and molten iron metal, which separates out.

The Goldschmidt Reaction can also be used to produce valuable alloys and metal master batches (for addition to steel alloys) like ferrosilicon, ferrovanadium, ferrochromium, ferrotitanium, ferroniobium etc, by reacting aluminium powder with the relevant mixture of oxides.

Fused with KOH and KClO3, an unusual ruby red iron (VI) compound is formed: potassium ferrate (VI), a very strong oxidiser:

Fe2O3(s) + 4 KOH(l) + KClO3(s) --- > 2 K2FeO4(s) + KCl(l) + 2 H2O(g)

In neutral or acid conditions ferrate reduces to ferric (Fe (III)) ions.

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CAS: 1309-37-1

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Thursday, 4 August 2011

Ammonium Alum - Recrystallised - 100 g



Chemical formula: NH4Al(SO4)2.12H2O

Synonyms: ammonium aluminium sulphate dodecahydrate, double salt of ammonium sulphate and aluminium sulphate, aluminium sulphate (misnomer).

Amount: 100 g

Appearance and odour: mostly medium size white crystals, without appreciable odour

Grade: recrystallised.

Packaging: professional wide necked, white HDPE bottle with blue conical seal cap and tamper evidence ring. Labelled. Bottle and cap are UN approved and reusable.

Description and uses: a double salt of aluminium sulphate and ammonium sulphate, NOT to be confused with its potassium homologue - alum - or with ferric ammonium alum - both also on sale from us. Used as a dye mordant and water treatment agent (flocculant) it is a primary source of soluble aluminium salt. Poorly soluble in iced water but highly soluble in hot water it is an ideal substance for crystal growing. It forms regular octahedral crystals with flattened corners and can be grown into very larger crystals with some patience. Mixed crystals with chromium alum or ferric alum can also be grown.

It belongs to the class of MM’(SO4)2.12H2O alum double salts, here with M = NH4 and M’ = Al.

Add ammonia solution to an alum solution and hydrated aluminium hydroxide precipitates: the basis of most other aluminium salts. Add strong alkali (NaOH or KOH) to the precipitate and it dissolves to aluminate, a phenomenon known as amphoterism.

Pyrolysis of this compound leaves pure alumina (Al2O3) behind.

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CAS: 7784-26-1
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